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Masters of Degrowth : Ecological Economics (w.2.3) Transformative science

  Class 5: Transformative science and learning   Funtowicz , S.O., Ravetz , J.R., 1994. The worth of a songbird: ecological economics as a post-normal science. Ecological Economics 10, 197–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/0921-8009(94)90108-2   Ecological economics embraces post normal science, that instead of reduce uncertainties or seek for truth, aims to be useful at providing tentative answers to important questions. The article challenges economists obsession to deal with questions of evaluation by reducing the question to one number. It provides additional qualitative metrics to evaluate uncertainty, and leverages and article of the recent Nobel price Nordhaus to show the poor usage of meaningless numerical accuracy with a model full of assumptions, tweaks and tricks to give plausible numbers. Quality is assessed by the robustness of a policy given the observed amount of uncertainty. Nordhaus makes policy recommendations that shows an excessive confidence on his poor model, basical
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Masters of Degrowth : Ecological Economics (w.2.2) The market and social provisioning

Dasgupta, P 2007:  Markets: A very short introduction Dasgupta describes efficiency in ideal markets in terms of Pareto, meaning that is not possible to make the bundle different without making at least one agent worse off. This theoretical foundation is at the core of the defence of 'free' global trade. Pareto efficiency says little about the justice or fairness of such endowments resulting from the market transactions. There are possible allocations that are either egalitarian and Pareto efficient and one but not the other. There are multiple cases where markets do not function well, such as public goods, externalities, imperfect information of the good or service quality and monopolies. In is often argue that monopolies are an acceptable evil as its profits are a driver for innovation as well as its scale can led to lower unit cost, when economies of scale are present. Mainstream theories struggle to explain crises and stagnation, as well as different levels of unemployment.

Masters of Degrowth : Ecological Economics (w.2.1) Human needs and wellbeing

Class 3: Human needs and wellbeing   Fanning, A.L., O’Neill, D.W., Hickel, J., Roux, N. 2021. The social shortfall and ecological overshoot of nations. Nature Sustainability, https: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-021-00799-z   At the global scale, we find that billions of people currently live in countries that do not achieve most of the social thresholds in our analysis, and yet humanity is collectively overshooting six of the seven global biophysical boundaries. We find that humanity is closer to reaching the social thresholds than it was in the early The 1990s (with the notable exceptions of equality and democratic quality), but notable shortfalls remain. At the same time, global resource use has overshot two additional boundaries (material footprint and blue water) and extended substantially further beyond the ecological ceiling over the 1992–2015 period, especially concerning material footprint and CO2 emissions. The average country has achieved one additional social threshold